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Navigating Native Plants

Most of the time, native plants don’t freak out about whatever Texas weather throws at them. Sure, we get a few casualties, including this year’s mushed up agaves. Plants may hunker down or not perform to our expectations in extended drought and freeze, but eventually they rally. My Salvia lyrata and Brazos penstemon (also called Gulf penstemon) quickly rebounded from last summer’s long, hot dry spell and icy crystals in February.
Salvia lyrata and Brazos penstemon (Gulf penstemon) native spring blooming perennials for part sun Central Texas Gardener
Originally, I planted them in my more cultivated beds. Fed up with that, eventually they declined. They flung their seeds with vigor, though, and the ones that landed in gritty crevices on my rustic back patio claimed their new home.
Brazos penstemon (Gulf penstemon) and native Salvia lyrata Central Texas Gardener
Bees and other pollinators literally dived in this week.
Bee inside Brazos penstemon flower native perennial Central Texas Gardener
What exactly is a native plant? “It’s a complicated concept,” said Andrea DeLong-Amaya, director of horticulture at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. “One of the shorthands that we use is to simply say that it’s a plant that occurs naturally where it evolved. Some people have said that it’s what occurred before European settlement, but we also know that Native Americans were moving plants around, too.”
Bee on native spiderwort Central Texas Gardener
In a Zoom conversation, Andrea joins John Hart Asher, senior environmental designer with Ecosystem Design Group to highlight basic concepts when selecting native plants for your garden. Both inspired by Doug Tallamy, University of Delaware professor, entomologist, and author (also featured on CTG), Andrea noted that he describes a native plant as one with historical evolutionary relationships with a particular wildlife community.
Bringing Nature Home by Doug Tallamy Central Texas Gardener
At the same time, most of us grow naturalized plants. “And that’s okay, we don’t have to have marigold guilt!” John Hart quipped.

SO, please right now, cancel the guilt if your garden includes trustworthy favorites (as long as they’re not invasive)! I’ve got native pink evening primrose (visited by a metallic green sweat bee) nuzzling bearded iris.
Metallic green sweat bee on native wildflower pink evening primrose Central Texas Gardener
Metallic green sweat bee pollen nectar native pink evening primrose Central Texas Gardener
Just feet away, drought-tough, fragrant climbing Cecile Brunner rose buddies up with the pink theme.
Cecile Brunner rose Central Texas Gardener
Bearded irises also companion with chile pequins and fall-blooming asters.
Pale blue bearded iris drought tolerant evergreen structure Central Texas Gardener
Maggie rose holds court above native sedges in my garden that only gets brief irrigation in summer.
Maggie rose Central Texas Gardener
Just like adapted plants, natives can be picky about their soil (as I well know!). “You’ll be more successful if you can match your plants to the soil,” Andrea advised. Some plants go along with clay, loam, and rocky conditions, like rock rose (Pavonia lasiopetala), as long as they get good drainage. Rock rose accepts sun to part shade and its spring to fall flowers are beloved by pollinators.
native perennial rock rose Pavonia lasiopetala Central Texas Gardener
Some really don’t want wheelbarrows of compost or mulch, including bluebonnets. That’s why they’ll generously seed in your gravel paths (as do my penstemons and Salvia lyratas). It’s the same deal with succulents like agave and prickly pear, here with bluebonnets and orange-hued globe mallow in the Gillum’s Dripping Springs garden.
bluebonnets, desert globe mallow, agave, prickly pear deer resistant design Central Texas Gardener
Compost can assist perennials like evergreen Salvia greggii and winter-dormant asters. Mainly, make your life easier by not trying to make a plant work for you. Instead, find the plant that works in your soil. We all experiment, and sometimes we fail, but there’s no reason to start out knowing that a plant’s destined for the compost pile.
Bee on purple fall aster Central Texas Gardener
Next, what’s your light like? That’s the first thing a plant needs to know. Andrea cautions that non-native plants may host nursery tags for “full sun,” but full sun in Texas is not the same as in Michigan!

Generally, “sun” means about six hours of sunlight a day. Countless plants fall into this category, so check out the Wildflower Center’s advanced search where you can match your location and garden desires. Andrea noted autumn sage (Salvia greggii) and herbaceous (not-woody) mealy blue sage (Salvia farinacea). Golden-flowered zexmenia joins mealy blue sage in this sunny spot.
Salvia farinacea mealy blue sage and zexmenia native plants for sun and pollinators Central Texas Gardener
Mealy blue sage accepts many soil conditions, but needs moist soils (or at least watering in summer). If you want hummingbirds, butterflies, and bumblebees, this one’s for you.
Bee on Salvia farinacea mealy blue sage Central Texas Gardener
‘Henry Duelberg’ is a natural hybrid discovered by horticulturist Greg Grant. Here’s blue Henry with white ‘Augusta Duelberg’.
Monarch-butterfly-on-Salvia-farinacea-Henry-Duelberg-Central-Texas-Gardener-
“Shade” means about six hours or so without direct sunlight. Annual, but self-sowing tropical sage (Salvia coccinea,) fits into beds and containers. Every year nurseries present new cultivars to mix in with the original red.
Tropical sage Salvia coccinea red and white Central Texas Gardener
Chile pequin is another that fits the bill, especially for birds that pluck the fruits and scatter them.
Chile-pequin-after-early-freeze-Central-Texas-Gardener-
We’ve also got intermittent light, where it’s shady one part of the day and sunny in another. The salvias and chile pequin swing along fine with that, as do all the mistflowers, asters, rock rose, and turk’s cap.
Gulf Fritillary butterfly native plant turk's cap shade garden
Lantana is one that can take some shade, too.
native Lantana Central Texas Gardener
In my garden, these all handle a really tough combination: morning shade and blazing afternoon spikes. Another one is shrubby boneset, also called white mistflower and fragrant mistflower. This perennial fall bloomer heralds migrating and resident pollinators in fall.
bee on native shrubby boneset white mistflower
Its branches may brown in some winters, so just trim back in February or so. Mine are already leafed out nicely after the big freeze.

For quick summer color, now’s the time to plant sunflowers! Named the Wildflower Center’s “2021 Wildflower of the Year,” there are numerous annuals that are easy to seed.
Carder bee on sunflower
There’s also perennial Maximilian sunflower that puts on a stately show in fall. “You can’t look at a sunflower and be sad,” Andrea said. “It’s a wonderful plant to attract all kinds of pollinators seeds for birds.”
Maximilian-sunflower-Wildflower-Center-Central-Texas-Gardener
See how to pop native plant color and texture into containers with Leslie Uppinghouse from the Wildflower Center!
Native container plants Leslie Uppinghouse Central Texas Gardener
We often get asked, “What can I use for screening?” Andrea suggests native yaupon holly that can be cut and shaped for narrow spaces—within limits—to support fruit-eating birds.
Yaupon holly native small tree for pollinators and birds Central Texas Gardener
Usually by now, bees would be flocking to its tiny flowers.
bee on yaupon holly flower Central Texas Gardener
If you can build a support of some type, mostly evergreen crossvine can screen a narrow view or cover a pergola. It’s winding down its spring trumpets that feed hummingbirds and bees. Be aware that it will need a guiding hand to keep it from heading into your neighbor’s swing set!
Native crossvine Bignonia Tangerine Beauty covering shady arbor Mueller Lake Park Central Texas Gardener
There are so many options and you can find some of them at the Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Spring Plant Sale held Friday – Sunday through May 30.

Watch now for more great information!

Thanks for stopping by! See you next week, Linda

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